- Breast Augmentation - Breast Reduction - Breast Lift -
- Male Breast Reduction - Male Chest Implants -
Cultural norms dictate how individuals feel about themselves, and these norms vary from generation to generation. The twentieth century saw fashions ranging from the voluptuous bosom, to the flat chested flappers, and somewhere in between. Today, breast augmentation is the most frequently performed cosmetic surgery procedure among females in the U.S. Women may elect to undergo this surgery for many different medical and aesthetic reasons including balancing breast size and compensating for reduced breast mass after pregnancy or surgery. It can change a
small breast size to a fuller, firmer, and better-proportioned look through the placement of saline (salt-water) filled implants, that are generally located under the gland, but may also be under the muscle. These implants are extremely versatile and can be selectively filled for unevenly sized breasts. Because they are inserted while deflated, the incisions are minimal. I prefer making the smallest incision possible at the bottom of the areolar complex where the pigmented coloration merges with the lighter adjacent skin.
Silicone implants, which are available for certain reconstructive procedures, may be used in selected patients who satisfy the criteria for FDA controlled studies.
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Having breasts that are too small may be no more distressing to one woman than being overly large to another. Symptoms of pain, poor posture, rashes, breathing problems, skeletal deformities, as well as low self-esteem in patients with heavy, pendulous breasts can be reason enough to seek out relief through surgery. Reduction involves the removal of glandular tissue and fat, and reshaping a new "brassiere" of skin with incisions that vary depending on the extent of the enlargement. The surgery is usually done under general anesthesia, and whenever possible a vertical mammaplasty ("lollipop") technique is my procedure of choice.
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Sagging of the breasts, which may occur after large variations in weight, pregnancy, loss of the skin's natural elasticity, or simply ordinary aging and the effects of gravity, is considered by many patients to be undesirable and unsightly. A mastopexy, is performed to lift and restore a more youthful shape to breasts that have fallen as a result of these factors and can also reduce the size of the areola (the dark skin surrounding the nipple). Depending on individual desires, the surgery may lift the breasts without a change in the volume, increase it visually by auto-augmentation using and repositioning the patient's own remaining breast tissue, or add more volume by combining it with an augmentation mammaplasty. It may be done under local anesthesia with sedation, or general anesthesia, and takes from one to three hours.
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Enlarged male breasts (gynecomastia) affects nearly 40-60% of men, often with no known cause. This condition can be highly embarrassing as well as physically uncomfortable.
Men who feel self-conscious about enlarged breasts may seek breast reduction surgery. The procedure removes fat and/or glandular tissue from the breasts, and in some cases excess skin as well. The result is a flatter, firmer chest.
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Pectoral implants can be used for those men with underdevelopment of their chest muscles or for those men who have a congenital defect or injury. The implants are placed under the pectoral muscle so that the implant does not feel or look fake. Instead, the implants give you an appearance of a well-flexed and well-defined pectoral muscle.
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